R E P L A C E M E N T S
In case of a break in a film, make a patch by inserting black leader. Be sure that the number of frames of black leader inserted is exactly the same as the number of frames you take out of the film, plus the frames used for the patches. After putting in the black leader, be sure to check up and see that the numbers follow in sequence and that there are exactly 15 frames without numbers between each pair of footage numbers.
If any numbered frames are missing, or if the missing portion is more than one foot, you will have to check both sides of the break to the next number, and after making the splice, see that you do not forget the intervening numbered frames.
Splicing Film - Film Reproduction
In case film carrying a sound track becomes broken, cut out as few frames as possible when making the splice. A break in the sound track is usually even more noticeable to the audience than a break in the picture. However, do not go to the extreme of saving weak film that will cause trouble later.
A plain splice, no matter how carefully made, will cause a click to be heard from the sound projectors as it passes through the film reproducing attachment, because the two edges and the overlap disturb the uniformity of the sound track and produce the same effect as though noises had actually been recorded on the track. In dealing with film of this type, therefore, first make a splice in the usual manner and then paint over this splice in black, as shown at "A" in Fig. 15. The painted mark on the sound track should be roughly triangular in shape with a blunted apex and between 3/8" and 1/2" wide at the base. If the splice is painted in this manner it will be almost inaudible when passing through the reproducing attachment, as the change in the light intensity which it causes will be at a frequency below the audible range. If the mark is made too short, as shown in figure "B", the click will be very pronounced; if it is made too long, as in figure "C", there will not be a click but there will be a noticeable pause in the sound owing to so much of the sound track being obliterated.
For opaqueing splices, the use of Zapon Concentrated Black Lacquer #2002-2 is recommended. It is made by the Zapon Company, Stamford, Connecticut. When a thinner is necessary, Zapon thinner #20 is recommended. The lacquer should be applied to the shiny, or celluloid, side of the film and not to the emulsion side. It dries almost instantly, adheres tightly, and is much more satisfactory than India ink or other substances. If for any reason it should become necessary to remove it, a rag soaked in lacquer thinner will be effective.
Splices in the negative in making up subjects sent out by the producers are taken care of in the printing and may be observed by the triangular marks along the sound track near changes of scene.
[COVER] [REGISTRY] [TITLE PAGE] [CONTENTS] [INTRODUCTION - PAGE 1] [STORAGE BATTERIES - PAGE 9] [STARTING AND TESTING - PAGE 14] [SETTING UP - PAGE 20] [REHEARSING - PAGE 27] [TROUBLES - PAGE 29] [REPLACEMENTS - PAGE 34]