Cartoons and all types of animation photography also should be mentioned. The bulk of the cartoon and animation work is now handled by adapted black-and-white cameras using the successive exposure method. These cameras are set up with a balanced set of three-color filters in the optical system at some point, the filters either rotating or sliding, and the color-exposures are made by exposing one frame of film through each filter successively. At the head end of each roll of film a special chart is photographed, permitting the laboratory to identify the various frames. This negative, after development, is printed on a step printer that prints each third frame only. Thus the records are separated and the prints handled in a manner similar to other standard prints. This method is limited to work where no movement takes place during the exposure, and great care must be exercised in the lighting, exposure, registration, development, and color-balance of the film. The cameras must be serviced, to rigid mechanical specifications, and the lenses should be color corrected. A great deal of careful work must be done to set up such a system, and reasonable care observed in the shooting. Once the system is set up, however, these items are handled largely on a routine basis and with reasonable facility. This type of photography can not be intercut with the standard three-strip negative unless dupe negatives are made.
Other very valuable technics and facilities that are available and are very successfully executed in current production today are glass shots; double and multiple exposures; double and multiple printing, wipes, fades, and lap dissolves made in the laboratory; and many combinations of these. The possibilities are numerous.
While speaking of effects photography, fluorescent materials, paints, inks, etc., should be mentioned. This is a field that has not received much attention due to lighting equipment limitations; however, it can be accomplished in Technicolor. A very simple test was recently made to indicate some of its possibilities. Fabrics colored with fluorescent materials were photographed using as an ultraviolet source a Type 170 M. R. HI arc, covered by a 12-inch ultraviolet Corning filter. The arc unit was positioned 12 feet away from the illuminated subject and the spread obtainable with the filter was about 6 1/2 feet at this distance. The brightness of the fluorescent fabrics were sufficient to give an acceptable Technicolor negative with the camera operating at the normal speed of 24 pictures per second.
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